Stating the action of a subject noun


One of the three sentence types in Japanese is to state a subject is performing a action (verb). (The other two involve a second noun or an adjective.)

The subject is marked by an appended が.

If the subject is known from context, the subject is left unspoken. This is similar to English, where a known subject is replaced by a pronoun (such as “he” or “they”).

Pattern: ⓃounがⓋerb

美少女戦士セーラームーン » Kanzenban Release » Volume 1 » Page 26

Usagi wakes from her dream what a black cat she saw earlier scratches her face. Usagi is startled when Luna begins talking to her.

うさぎ:
「ネコが(しゃべ)った!?」
“The cat talked?!”

Usagi thinks to herself, the ネコ (cat) did the action (しゃべ)った (talked).

Pattern: Ⓥerb

俺物語!! » Volume 1 » Page 90

Yamato is distraught when the guy she likes, Takeo, seems to be trying to pair her up with his friend, Sunakawa. She visits Sunakawa for advice, and he asks her what she plans to do, followed by asking a course of action:

砂川(すなかわ)
「あきらめる?」
“(You) giving up?”

It’s known from context that she’s asking Yamato if she’s planning to give up on Takeo. The subject, Yamato, does not need to be stated. (Nor does the object, Takeo.)