ので expresses an objective reason for an action. The clause providing a reason is before ので, and the clause after is the result. ので places emphasis on the effect. It is similar in meaning to “since” or “because”, but by its objectiveness, it can also be considered to mean “by the fact that” or “from the fact that”.
When ので follows a non-conjugating word (a noun or な adjective), it is written なので. When following a conjugating word (verb or い adjective), ので by itself is used.
- Chino, Naoko. “NO DE ので” All About Particles: A handbook of Japanese Function Words, Kodansha, 2001, pp. 88–89
- Chino, Naoko. “VI. Particles Indicating a Reason or Cause” How to Tell the Difference Between Japanese Particles, Kodansha, 2012, p. 63
- Kamiya, Taeko. “Stating Purpose, Cause, and Reason.” Japanese Sentence Patterns for Effective Communication, Kodansha, 2005, pp. 146, 148
- Kawashima, Sue A. “NO-DE の-で.” A Dictionary of Japanese Particles, Kodansha, 1999, p. 162–163
- Makino, Seiichi and Michio Tsutsui. “Main Entries.” A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar, The Japan Times Ltd., 1989, pp. 328–329